Indian School of Philosophy: Sources of Thoughts and beliefs


Division of Schools

The Indian School of Philosophy has the source “Veda”. Therefore Veda provides more theories that depict power and self-acceptance they also contain information regarding moral behavior and religion actually traditionally there are four types of Veda:-

1. The Rig Veda 

2. The Yajur Veda 

3. The samveda

4. The atharvaveda

There are actually 9 Indian schools of philosophy with individual thinking and thoughts having been classified into two divisions. The broader aspect of schools of Indian philosophy is Orthodox (astika) and Heterodox (Nastika).

The schools that classified consider Veda as a belief nor derive their own validity from the authority of Veda are Heterodox.

This Nastika theory includes– The Charvaka,  Jainism, Buddhism, ajnana, and ajivika.

The school of philosophy which do not reject the authority of Veda which includes –Nyaya, vaisheshika, samkhya, yoga, Mimansa, and Vedanta.

Heterodox Indian School of Philosophy:-

Jainism :-

Jainism - Indian school of philosophy

This is one of the most ancient religions of India they believe in the validity of perception, interference, and testimony as a means of knowledge. Jainism actually teaches the path of enlightenment is through the means of non-violence that means not harming any other living things ( including plants animals) as much as possible.

The camp with a unique position 

1. Syadavada: This can be also called a theory of knowledge. This means that they believe that knowledge is only relative it is not absolutely right or wrong judgment. Reality has innumerable aspects every aspect can’t be achieved by a brain because of different thoughts going around and its perception can’t be predicted only related.

2. Anekatavada: This can be also called as the theory of manyness of reality. This says that reality is neither permanent nor it is changing constantly.

The Jainas believe in 24 Tirthankar or  ‘founders of the faith’.The first was RishabhDev and the last is Mahavira was “the great spiritual hero” of Jainism at the age of 30, he became an ascetic and renowned his family wondered from 12 years he attained kaivalya (Supreme knowledge) at his 42 years. Under the sal tree at Jambhikagrama on the bank of Rijapalika.

The doctrine of Jainism:-

Triratna, i.e. – Three gems of Jainism

  1. Firstly SAMHAK SHRADHA (Right faith)

2. Secondly SAMYAK JANAN ( Right knowledge)

3. Third SAMYAK KARMA (Right action)

Types of knowledge in Jainism:-

1. MATI JNANA: The perception through sense organs including the mind.

3. SHRUTA JNANA: Knowledge revealed by scriptures.

4. AVADHI JNANA: Clairvoyant perception.

6. MANAHPARYANA: Telephatic knowledge.

7. KEVAL JNANA: Temporal knowledge of omniscience.


Buddhism- Indian School of philosophy

This school came after the enlightenment by Buddha. Buddhism believes in perception and interference as the means of valid knowledge only knowledge can break the cycle and liberate us. Buddha who wondered for 7 years met many of the teachers at last under the pipal tree at the Bodh Gaya, on the bank of the river near Niranjana. He attained Nirvana after 49 days of continuous meditation.

Teachings of Buddha in Buddhism:-

  • We should not cause injury to living.
  • Law of karma: man repeals the fruits of his past.
  • Budha was a rationalist, He explains things in the light of reasons, not based on blind faith.
  • He was against any social distinction.
  • Buddha asked followers to avoid luxury and prescribed them the middle path.

Buddhist scriptures:-

The most important scriptures of the buddha are Vinay pitak, Sutta pitak, and Abhidhamma Pitak. These are called Tripitaka( Threefold basket).


  • Buddha ( the enlightened)
  • Dharma ( Doctrine )
  • Sangha ( Commune )

Charvaka Philosophy:-

Charvaka Philosophy - School of Indian Philosophy

This school of philosophy is also the oldest school of In. It is also called materialism. This school was named after the follower of Brihaspati whose name was Charaka. This School of Philosophy believes on the matter to be reality. This philosophical school includes four elements -Earth, water, fire, and air. The body property is formed by the combination of these four elements. They do not opt and entertain the idea of God, soul, akasa, and the like. It signifies that the materialistic are the people who believe in ” eat, drink and be merry”. Brihaspati, a hetrical teacher is regarded as the traditional founder of charvaka school. Even he is also presented as the teacher of God who propagated materialism among the asuras so that they might be ruined. 

No original work has been found on this philosophical school. In fact there are many perceptions that weak points in the schools are exaggerated and the strong points are omitted in some of the text found. So we get a faint Canvas of charvaka philosophical school.


Some of the important sutras of Brahspati which are quoted in the various philosophical writing may be gleaned as follow:- 

  1. Earth, Water, Fire, and air are the elements.
  2. Bodies, senses, and objects are the results of the different combinations of elements.
  3. Consciousness arises from matter like the intoxicating quality of wine arising from fermented yeast.
  4. The soul is nothing but the conscious body.
  5. Enjoyment is the only end of human life.
  6. Death alone is liberation

Orthodox Indian School of Philosophy:-

Nyaya Philosophy:-

Nyaya is the school of philosophy that deals with argumentation and suggests what’s right but by an analytical and logical method. School of Science and reasoning or Tarksastra; Pramansastra the science of debating. Anviksiki or the science of critical thinking.

Sage Gautama introduced Nyaya philosophy of Indian school . Knowledge according to Nyaya is for both subjects as well as objects. According to Nyaya’s philosophy knowledge may be both prama or aprama. that means valid knowledge or invalid knowledge.

Prama – Right apprehension of an object

Aprama – Non – valid means of knowledge


  • Testimony
  • Perception
  • Inference 
  • Comparison

 Pramakarananam Pramanam- Prantu Yatharthjanam 

Mimamsa Indian School of Philosophy:- 

This School of Philosophy deals with the interpretation of Vedic rituals. Actually Mimansa this word means “Profound thoughts”. Moreover the thought is based on an earlier process of Veda’s which means the mantras and Brahman portions. 

Vedanta and Mimamsa philosophy are supporters of each other. They both interpret the thought process of Veda. There are two portions of Veda which are earlier portions and latter portions. 

Earlier portions includes mantras and Brahman is called karmakanda .In the same way Later portions includes Upanishad are called janankanda. 

Purva- Mimamsa or Karma Mimamsa means the earier portion of veda

Jamini was the founder of Purva mimamsa.

Yoga Indian School of Philosophy:- 

Yogic Philosophy - School of Indian Philosophy

Yoga word is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘yuj’ which means ‘to join’, ‘to yoke’, and ‘to unite’. Hence it is the most valuable gift to us from our ancestors. It is a great technique by which one can unite the self with the universal spirit and can harmonize with nature. Therefore, It makes things easy and helps us in almost every field of our life. So in this article, we are going to discuss more and more about it, its meaning, type, history, its benefits, and its modern approach.

For more you can click on this Yoga .

Samkhya Indian School of Philosophy:-

Samkhya Philosophy- Indian school of philosophy

This school of Indian philosophy was founded by sage Kapila. It says that knowledge between self and not-self liberates us. It truly suggests the path of liberation is through the means of Yoga.

They believe in two realities: on one hand Purusa and on the other hand Prakrti. They consist of three Gunas sattva, rajas, and tamas. 

The Principal of pure consciousness. Purusa is the soul, the self, the spirit, the subject, the knower. So It is neither body nor senses nor brain nor mind (manas) nor ego (ahankara) nor intellect (buddhi). It is not a substance that possesses the quality of Consciousness. Consciousness is the essence. The theory that causation means a real transformation of the material cause leads to the concept of
Prakrti is the root – cause of the world of objects. All worldly effects are latent in this uncaused cause because infinite regress has to be avoided. It is the potentiality of nature, ‘the receptacle and nurse of all generation’.

Vedanta Philosophy:-

Let’s start with the word Vedanta, which consists of two words ‘ved+anta’. Literally, ‘ved’ means ‘Vedas’ and ‘anta’ refers to ‘to the end’. So the word ‘Vedanta‘ meaning is,’ the end of the Vedas’. Let’s elaborate on its meaning by knowing more about it. Vedanta is the last and concluding portion of the Vedas. And it consists of Upanishad. So philosophy based on Upanishads is known as Vedanta Darshanam. Vedanta is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy. The other schools are Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisesika, and Mimamsa.

The reason behind the name being Vedanta, and not anything else, is that it includes not only the end and concluding portion of Vedas. But also the cream, the essence, and the height of Vedic philosophy. Vedanta contains many sub-tradition based on a common textual connection called the Prasthana Trayi. The main traditions of Vedanta are also discussed in this article below under a different subheading.

For More read on this topic


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